In my previous post, I started elaboration of a simple user story about Embedded Terminal Application deployment. There we have focused on the middle part of the user story about what the Administrator (the actor) wants. At the end, I have started elaboration of the last part, i.e. what is the benefit or better to say, the quality we want to achieve.

I sincerely hope that it does not strike as a controversial idea that user stories are all about quality. But I have always been puzzled, how to conect such seeminly different things as user / stakeholder intents and measurable qualities. Until, one day, Tom Gilb (@imtomgilb) explained all of that.

First of all, let us repeat the user story:

As an administrator, I want to eliminate all manual steps required to perform before users can start using SafeQ features on the MFD, so that I save time.

In the previous post, I have asked the question, whether saving time is the quality we are really looking for. The Administrator might need to work with the system in different contexts. On one hand, we have an Administrator who needs to save time, since he takes care of a small environment and has many things at once to focus on. On the other hand, we have a team trying to prepare thousands of printers for thousands of end users and willing to tradeoff litle extra time for reliability, as long as they don’t have to work with one machine at a time.

…so that I save time.

So we are dealing with complex quality here and we need to decompose. Let us start with putting together a list of aspects of the quality the Administrators are looking for (nomenclature is not important, as long as we can agree on common naming):

  • Time or Degree of Automation per Device, i.e. time we need to spend on each device in our fleet compared to the total time we need to prepare the environment for the end users.
  • Reliability, i.e. the probability with which a particular device of the fleet fails to get prepared despite Administrators doing everything right.
  • Robustness, i.e. the probability that the process and the tools we have provided the Administrators with works correctly, meaning it delivers the results it should, coping with whatever problems (such as device misconfigurations or differences between firmware versions) which can be expected (were experienced in the past, are documented or not guaranteed by the vendor).
  • Repeatability, i.e. how difficult (in terms of manual steps) it is to repeat the process in case of failure to potentially fix the failure (such as by turning of a device, which had been turned off and thus it was not possible to prepare it properly).

For each quality, we can establish three levels – goal, tolerable and past. The most important for us is to elaborate on tolerable and also prepare measurements (please note that all qualities mentioned above can be measured) and measure the past, i.e. the current state of the art for our product.

The goal shall be elaborated as a big enough improvement over the current state and also balanced with tolerable level. Tolerable simply means, that if we get below this point (such as Reliability below 70%), the user story does not exist as implemented, since we failed to deliver on the stakeholder (Administrator in this case) value.

We have decoupled the value the Administrator needs to receive in the product, but how to put all this into the user story?
We have started with time, but it seems now, that the overall quality the Administrators are looking into are not connected only with time and effort, but have something to do with the risk of the MFD not being prepared for the end users. It sounds too general, though as we are dealing with all sorts of risks, but the qualities we are looking to are all about doing the deployment quickly, have the ability to minimize failures and recover from them as fast as possible with minimum requirement for manual steps.

So let’s move forward with our user story…

As an administrator, I want to eliminate all manual steps required to perform before users can start using SafeQ features on the MFD, so that I save time deploying the system and recovering from failures.

Please note that we are still avoiding unintentional design as we are not saying what needs to be done or how the deployment or the recovery is done.

Our user story is far from complete… next time, I will elaborate on how to connect qualities with user stories and what is the value of tests in this matter.

This approach of quality is inspired by Evolutionary Project Management and Competitive Engineering technique put together by Tom and Kai Gilb ( It is not easy, but it is elegant in its simplicity and beatiful.